A USB-C dock with USB 3.x ports will have a DisplayPort 1.4 port that has half the bandwidth of a normal DisplayPort 1.4 port.
1440p@144Hz would probably require DSC in that case. Both your display and GPU would need to support DSC. Without DSC, you would be limited to 8bpc color or you would have to switch to 4:2:2 instead of RGB or 4:4:4. You might have to switch to a slightly lower refresh rate for RGB/4:4:4 8bpc. I think HDR requires 10bpc.
If USB 2.0 is good enough, Cable Matters has a USB-C dock with USB 2.0 ports and full bandwidth DisplayPort 1.4 port.