What’s the bandwidth of the cameras? Are they USB 2.0 or USB 3.x?
A USB docking station has to divide the 5 or 10 Gbps upstream connection among USB 3.x cameras.
If all the cameras are USB 2.0, then they will share a USB 2.0 upstream connection (480 Mb/s) because USB 2.0 is completely separate from USB 3.x.
The same thing applies to modern Thunderbolt 3 or Thunderbolt 4 docks that support connection to hosts that don’t have Thunderbolt. Since a host might not have Thunderbolt, the Thunderbolt dock uses a USB hub for all its ports so they can be connected via USB.
However, old Thunderbolt 3 docks that require a Thunderbolt connection to the host will usually not use USB hubs. Instead, they have multiple USB controllers. For example, the CalDigit TS3+ has two 4 Gbps controllers, one 8 Gbps controller, and one 10 Gbps controller. Each 4 Gbps or 8 Gbps controller may have multiple separate ports (not part of a hub). Each controller is separate and the total bandwidth can be ≈22 Gbps.